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University of Pretoria Study
(Athelete Study) - Part 3

Product Efficacy Report: CELLFOODŽ

                                                    Figure 7: Haematocrit Values

Haemoglobin Saturation (Figure 9and Table II)

One molecule of Hb is capable of combining with maximally four molecules of oxygen. In terms of amount this turns out to be 1.34ml of oxygen per gram of Hb. Thus one gram of Hb becomes saturated with oxygen when it combines with 1.34ml of oxygen. At rest and at sea level, about 15 grams of Hb are present in every 100ml (for males, 16 grams per 100ml and for females, 14 grams per 100ml). Therefore under these conditions, the oxygen capacity of Hb is 15 x 1.34 =20.1ml O2/ 100ml blood, or 20.1 volumes percent (volumes percent in this case means millilitres of O2 per 100ml blood).

With exercise the Hb concentration of blood increases anywhere from 5 - 10%. This is due, at least in part, because fluid shifts from the blood into the active muscle cells, and hemoconcentration results. A 10% hemoconcentration during exercise means that there will be about 16.5 grams of Hb per 100ml of blood instead of 15 grams. The oxygen capacity of Hb would in this case increase from 20.1 to 22.1 volumes percent, a definitely advantageous change. The last important concept regarding Hb is the percent saturation of Hb with oxygen. The percentage saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen (%SO2) was measured incrementally throughout the treadmill tests. This values relates the amount of oxygen actually combined with haemoglobin (content) to the maximum amount of oxygen that could be combined with haemoglobin (capacity):

%SO2 = (O2 content of Hb/ O2 capacity of Hb) x 100

A saturation of 100% means that the oxygen actually combined with the Hb is equal to the oxygen capacity of Hb. The use of %SO2 takes into account individual variations in Hb concentrations (Fox et al., 1993).

"CELLFOODŽ had the most beneficial influence on the saturation of haemoglobin (with oxygen) while taken at a
dosage of 17 drops once a day. CELLFOODŽ increased the saturation levels at all the running speeds during the
treadmill test. Again this is beneficial to the athlete since more oxygen is available for transport through the body."

Blood Lactate Accumulation (Figure 6 and Table III)

Lactate is one of the products of glycolysis. It is both produced and used by the muscles. It's rate of production increases as the exercise rate increases and as more carbohydrates is used to fuel exercise (Noakes, 1992) Glycolysis refers to the process where carbohydrates are broken down to pyruvic acid or lactic acid (Meyer and Meij, 1996).

Lactic acid does not necessarily accumulate at all levels of exercise. During light and moderate exercise the energy demands are adequately met by reactions that use oxygen. In biochemical terms, the ATP for muscular contraction is made available predominantly through energy generated by the oxidation of hydrogen. Any lactic acid formed during light exercise is rapidly oxidized. As such, the blood lactic acid levels remains fairly stable even though oxygen consumption increases.

Lactic acid begins to accumulate and rise in an exponential fashion at about 55% of the healthy, untrained subject's maximal capacity for aerobic metabolism. The usual explanation for the increase in lactic acid is based on the assumption of a relative tissue hypoxia (lack of adequate oxygen) in heavy exercise (McCardle, Katch and Katch, 1991). For this reason it would be beneficial to the athlete if CELLFOODŽ could help the oxygen supply to the muscle and surrounding tissue, preventing or rather delaying the onset of hypoxia due to increased exercise intensity.

An untrained individual who fasted overnight and who has a sample of blood collected in the morning from an arm vein before any exercise, has a lactate level ranging from 0.44 to 1.7 mmol/L. Martin and Coe (1997) also found the equivalent of 0.3 to 0.6 mmol/L to be true for trained individuals, providing that they are not over trained. Within an hour after an intensive training session during which blood lactate levels reach the highest achievable values (15mmol/L), muscle lactate levels will return to normal (Noakes, 1992). Lactic acid produced in working muscles is almost completely dissociated into H+ and lactate within the range of physiological pH, which contributes to the metabolic acidosis (Hirokoba, 1992).

"CELLFOODŽ was very effective in decreasing lactate values during the test. The most effective dosage was at 15
drops once a day. CELLFOODŽ made for lower lactate values at all the comparative running speeds during the test.
Lower lactate values would definitely be beneficial to the endurance athlete. Decreases ranged between 10 and 25%."

For the conclusion, "click on" University of Pretoria Study (Athelete Study) - Part 4

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